make (examples taken from CB-05-03, CB-05-10, CB-06-01, CB-06-05, CB-07-05, CB-OC-1)
Pronoun Reference
Agreement in Number (it, he, she, we, they, their, this)
Relative Pronoun Agreement (where, when, which, whom, who)
One ←→ You shift (one, you)
No Previous Reference (it, he, she, we, they, their, this)

Pronoun: Agreement in Number (it, he, she, we, they, its, their, this)

1. Ocean currents that start in the warm waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean are initially low in salt content but become more saline as it flows northward into colder regions.

2. In the eighteenth century, the English emphasis on the study of Greek and Latin allowed it to produce some fine poetry written in classical verse forms. (careful with “them”…)

3. The survey indicated that workers in the United States hope that his or her wages will keep pace with the rising cost of living.

4. Because the American Indian rodeo includes games and exhibitions developed as early as the seventeenth century, they predate by a few hundred years the form of rodeo now seen on TV.

5. Psychologists advise that before making any major changes in his life, a person needs to focus on their goals.

6. In the nineteenth century, careers in business and law were prestigious, but it did not require practitioners to hold college degrees.

7. A newly formed organization of homeowners and business people has met with the transportation department to voice their concerns about plans for a shopping mall in the community.

8. Harvard University officials first broke with a tradition of awarding honorary degrees only to men when they awarded it to author Josephine May.

9. In order for the audience to believe in and be engaged by a Shakespearean character, they have to come across as a real person on the stage.

10. The cost of safely disposing of the toxic chemicals is approximately five times what the company paid to purchase it.

11. Long neglected by restaurants in China, Japanese cooking is attracting attention with their colorful and simple dishes.

Pronoun: Relative Pronoun Agreement
(where, when, which, whom, who)
Place – > where / in which
Time – > when
Animal or Thing – > that or which
Person – > Who
Person (object) – > Whom
Who vs. Whom: you use “whom” when you are referring to the object of a sentence. Use “who” when you are referring to the subject of a sentence.
Trick: Like “whom,” the pronoun “him” ends with “m.” When you’re trying to decide whether to use “who” or “whom,” ask yourself if the answer to the question would be “he” or “him.”
For example, if you’re trying to ask, “Who (or whom) do you love?” The answer would be “I love him.” “Him” ends with an “m,” so you know to use “whom.”

Trick: Like “whom,” the pronoun “him” ends with “m.” When you’re trying to decide whether to use “who” or “whom,” ask yourself if the answer to the question would be “he” or “him.”
For example, if you’re trying to ask, “Who (or whom) do you love?” The answer would be “I love him.” “Him” ends with an “m,” so you know to use “whom.”

1. During rehearsals, the director praised the actors which had supporting roles more often than those with the most demanding roles.

2. Jeff has met some fascinating characters as well as people which also really bore him.

3. In areas when deer roam freely, residents must dress to protect themselves against deer ticks that might transmit diseases.

4. Many people say that the price of e-books, it typically hovers around $15, is too high.

5. A poetic form congenial to Robert Browning was the dramatic monologue, it let him explore a character’s mind without the simplifications demanded by stage productions.

6. Scientists which have studied lizards claim that their long tongues enable the animals to hunt flies effectively.

Pronoun: One ←→ You shift (one, you, we)

1. Psychologists advise that before making any major changes in your life, a person needs to focus on one’s goals.

2. Because they must compete with a large chain of super-stores that can afford to charge very low rates for certain items, the owners of small hardware stores know that you are unlikely to make much profit and may, in fact, go bankrupt.

3. Before you eat a late night snack, he or she should consider the negative effects of eating at night.

4. We shouldn’t take the Yankees lightly if you want to win.

Pronoun: Incorrect, Ambiguous, or No Reference
(it, he, she, we, they, their, this)

1. When Doris Lessing published The Golden Notebook in 1962, it instantly established herself as one of the most important literary voices of her generation.

2. Some beaches are frequently contaminated by untreated sewage that flows into the ocean, which can last for several days. (is the ocean lasting for several days? Ambiguous meaning)

Correct: ocean; the contamination can last for several days.

3. For decades, African American music has inspired musicians throughout the world, including in Russia.

4. Though Jason had done all the work, Parker had taken all the credit, and so he held him in contempt.

5. Nancy is a better skier than the rest of us because she has been doing it since she was five.

Subject-Verb (Reforms in welfare has not managed to bring children out of poverty)
Subject-Noun (We wanted to be a police officer)

Subject – Verb agreement

1. In the 1800s, miniature reproductions of temples made entirely of stone was often a popular feature in carnivals.

2. Traditional Jamaican music, enriched with rock, jazz, and other modern rhythms from America, were the basis for reggae.

3. Careful analysis of pictures of the Moon reveal that parts of the Moon’s surface is markedly similar to parts of the Earth’s.

4. The relationship between goby fish and striped shrimp are truly symbiotic.

5. All the talk about controlling noise, keeping rivers clean, and planting trees have not impressed people enough to bring about changes.

6. The candidate called for medical insurance reform, but to me he seemed less interested in the plight of uninsured citizens than in whether enough is registered to vote.

7. Only recently have the necessary technology been developed for solving the mysteries of genetics.

8. Extending along several city blocks are a row of ginkgo trees, their leaves turning a brilliant yellow now that summer is over.

9. Africa’s Kanem empire, after enduring for over a thousand years, are believed to have fallen into decline in 1700.

10. At the reception was the three-tiered cake, the guests, and the lively music that have become characteristic of many weddings.

11. In a nearby resort community fewer accidents has been reported and the number of speeding tickets issued have decreased since speed bumps were installed.

12. Because the meteorite Ahnighito, the centerpiece of the Hall of Meteorites, weigh 34 tons, its supports for it go through the floor.

13. The iris, the colored part of the eye, contain delicate patterns that is unique to each person, offering a powerful means of identification.

14. The newly elected Prime Minister, to the dismay of his opponents, have argued for the strict regulation of campaign financing.

15. Only by tapping their last reserves of energy was the team members able to salvage what was beginning to look like a lost cause.

16. Ongoing research by several scientists suggest that regular periods of meditation reduce blood pressure and is likely to contribute to other improvements in health.

17. A recently published history of comic books reveal that Batman was begun as an experiment but became an institution.

18. Although science offers the hope of preventing serious genetic diseases, there is difficult ethical questions raised by the possibility of altering human heredity.

19. At the Democratic Convention of 1950, the proposal to replace the candidate John Perry with Jack Valenti were met with fierce opposition.

20. Storing bread in the refrigerator delays drying and the growth of mold but increase the rate at which the bread loses flavor.

21. Every spring in rural Vermont the sound of sap dripping into galvanized metal buckets signal the beginning of the traditional season for gathering maple syrup.

22. Those investors who sold stocks just before the stock market crashed in 1929 was either wise or lucky.

Subject – Noun agreement

1. In Lord of the Flies, both Ralph and Jack emerge early on as the leader of the lost boys.

2. As a child growing up on a farm, my sister and I visited many county fairs.

3. At the 1974 Olympic Games, Barry Jones and Jack Gonzales, who was a swimmer on the United States team, set world records.

4. While growing up in Boston, Jack and I always wanted to become a Boston police officer.

Comparison (Houston’s weather is nicer than Boston)
List (I taught him science, math, and they also learned history)
“To be or not to be”. NOT “to be or not being”

Parallel Comparison
Three ways to fix:
(Houston’s weather is nicer than Boston’s weather / weather in Boston)
(Houston’s weather is nicer than Boston’s)
(Houston’s weather is nicer than that in Boston)
Houston’s highways are nicer than those in Boston.

1. One reason that an insect can walk on walls while a human cannot is that the mass of its tiny body is far lower than humans.

2. Sigrid Unset is like the novelist Sir Walter Scott in her use of historical backgrounds, but unlike his books, she dwells on the psychological aspects of her characters.

3. Our new neighbors are the most sociable people we have ever met, and our chief interests, cooking and politics, are similar to them.

4. My roommate, a drama major, claimed that Ibsen’s plays, unlike Ioneso, are totally conventional in their style.

5. Clara Barton’s influence as a reformer in the field of health care almost equals Florence Nightingale.

6 Although my sister and I took our dogs to the same training school, my dog won more awards at the contest than my sister.

7. Whistler’s paintings, unlike Klee, are conventional in their subject matter.

8. Lynn Margulis’s theory that evolution is a process involving interdependency rather than competition among organisms differs dramatically from most biologists.

9. Meals prepared by the Algonquin Indians, who were farmers as well as hunters, included more maize and pumpkin than other Indian tribes.

10. Muffins made from whole-grain flour are coarser in texture but more flavorful than white flour.

Parallel List Construction
(I taught him science, math, and they also learned history)

1. A fine band performance will exhibit the skills of the musicians, their abilities to work together, and how he or she responds to the conductor.

2. Explaining modern art is impossible, partly because of its complexity but largely because it is rapidly changing.

3. The furnace exploded, blowing off the door, spraying greasy soot all over the basement floor, and it would rattle furniture and windowpanes throughout the building.

Rewrite the following:
4. The opposing opinions expressed were that the school should be torn down and, on the other hand, to keep it as a historical landmark.

(Were that… _______ and that ________)

5. The discrepancy between the richness of Shakespeare’s works and how much biographical information is lacking has not diminished over centuries.

Parallel nouns: richness of Shakespeare’s works + lack of biographical information about Shakespeare

6. Many eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Romantic poets were believers in rebellion against social conventions, express strong emotion, and the power of imagination.

7. James Barrie, the author of Peter Pan and other plays, is noted for portraying adulthood as unpleasant and childhood is glorious.

8. Caricaturists evoke humor by blending the realistic with the comedy in portraits. (2 ways to fix)

Other Grammar Laws
Comparing – Degrees (great, greater, greatest)
Gerund + Infinitive
Correlative Conjunctions (either+or, neither+nor, etc.)
Adjective vs. Adverb
Object vs. Subject
Redundancy (repeating yourself. Unnecessary words (more better) N)
Commonly confused words

Comparisons and Superlatives
Comparing two things: use better, greater, faster, slower, more expensive than, more interesting than, etc.
Comparing 3 or more: use superlative: best, greatest, fastest, slowest, most expensive, least good-looking.

1. Reaching lengths of twelve inches, banana slugs are the much larger of all the slug species that inhabit North America.

2. The Empire State Building, the Sears Tower, the Canadian National Tower—each of these structures was the taller in the world at the time they were built. (2x)

Present perfect vs. Past perfect vs. Past

Materials Needed: participles list

1. Those who defend juniper trees from loggers justified doing so on the grounds that such trees are irreplaceable. (present tense)

2. Africa’s Mali empire, after enduring for over a thousand years, is believed to have fallen into decline when trade centers shift outside its boundaries.

3. Until recently, most people entering politics feel that loss of privacy was a fair price to pay for the chance to participate in policy making.

4. Only by tapping their last reserves of energy are the team members able to salvage what was beginning to look like a lost cause.

5. Despite its cultural importance, the Daily Bugle lost 70 percent of its subscribers since 1910 and, by 1975, was losing as much as $100,000 a year.

6. Selected as an astronaut by NASA in 1980, John Glenn has spent over 800 hours in space on four flights by 1990.

7. In the old days, before current consumer laws were in effect, buyers are responsible for inspecting merchandise for flaws before paying for it.

8. By next year the old vaudeville theater had been converted into two small theaters in which films can be shown.

9. Now that Michiko finished the research, she feels reasonably confident about writing her paper on the rise of the progressive movement in the United States.

10. Since last September Avery worked at the supermarket downtown.

11. When Marie Curie shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics with two other scientists—her husband Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel—she had been the first woman to win the prize.

12. Vaudeville was an early training ground for many great American artists who serve apprenticeships there before going on to successful careers.

13. Twenty-five years after Alex Haley’s Roots stimulate many people to research their family histories, new technology has been developed to make the task easier.

14. In the nineteenth century, careers in business and law are prestigious.

Verb Form
Infinitive: (to play) vs. Gerund: (playing) (only a gerund when it’s a noun)
I am swimming. (not a gerund)
Swimming in summer is amazing. (gerund)
To swim in summer feels amazing.
In some situations, these are interchangeable.

1. This liberal arts college has decided requiring all students to study at least one foreign language.

2. A million people marched on Washington DC in an attempt securing civil rights for Black Americans.

3. The famous filmmaker had a tendency of changing his recollections out of boredom.

tendency of a thing vs. tendency to (verb)

4. Over the past two years, apparel manufacturers have worked to meeting the revised federal standards for the design of uniforms.

5. According to last week’s survey, most voters were disappointed by legislators’ inability working together on key issues.

6. The museum is submitting proposals to several foundations in the hope to gain funds to build a tropical butterfly conservatory.

Parallel infinitives or gerunds (“To be or not to be”. NOT “to be or not being”)

1. Studies have suggested that eating nuts – almonds in particular – might help to lower blood cholesterol and reducing the risk of heart disease by protecting the blood vessels.

2. In their search for ways to extend the human life span and warding off diseases, scientists find themselves focusing not on expanding the diet but rather on limiting it.

Commonly Confused Words
(lay vs. lie, imminent vs. eminent, fewer vs. less, good vs. well, affect vs. effect, regardless vs. irregardless, data = plural, datum = singular, could have vs. could of, would have vs. would of, proceed vs. precede)
lie (present,) lay (past) and lain (past participle). To lie down (on a bed, grass)
lay (present), laid (past) and laid (past participle). To place or set sth

1. When for the first time the United States imported more oil than it exported, Americans should have realized that an energy crisis was eminent.

2. (lay vs. lie) Please lie your bag on the floor and lay down on the examination table.

3. She lie her bag on the floor and laid down on the examination table. (past tense)

4. He has laid on his bed doing nothing for hours now.

5. Yesterday, while studying outside, Janet laid on the grass

6. I am laying the baby down for a nap.

7. Her fingers sore, Mary had lain her ring on the table before she realized just minutes later that it was missing.

Adjective vs. Adverb
Adjectives modify nouns.
Adverbs modify Verbs, Adjectives, and other Adverbs

1. The ambassador was entertained lavish by Hartwright.

2. Experiments have shown that human skin provides natural protection against a surprising large number of bacteria.

3. London differs from other cities, such as Paris and New York, in that its shopping areas are so wide spread out.

4. It was fortunate that the police officer arrived quickly because she was the only person at the scene who was able to investigate the accident calm and dispassionate.

5. Not many authors have described the effects of environmental pollution as effective as Rachel Carson.

6. In Angkor, Cambodia’s ancient city, a clever designed reservoir, five miles long and one mile wide, supplied fish and helped farmers to produce three crops of rice annually.

7. Those investors who sold stocks just before the stock market crashed in 1929 were either wise or exceptional lucky.

Object vs. Subject
Ask – who is doing the action? Are you doing the action, or is the action being done to you?

Example: Jack gave the ball to me. (Jack as subject, and me as the object)
I gave the ball to Jack. (I as subject of sentence)

1. Carlos cherished the memory of the day when him and his sister Rosa were presented with awards.
(rewrite to: Him was presented). Does it still sound correct?

2. Last summer, when Jessica’s aunt and uncle flew from Africa to visit their relatives and tour the United States, Jessica invited Jane and I to her house to meet them.

3. Some scholars studying the writings of Emily Brontë have become increasingly interested in the relationships between her siblings and she.

4. No one is happier than me to hear that you graduated from college.
(add the verb “to be” to get the answer)

Redundancy (repetitive words)
(more better, most fastest)

1. The country found that its economy was growing more stronger, with an improved outlook and more opportunities for training and employment.

2. When for the first time the United States imported more oil than it exported, Americans should have realized that an energy crisis was imminent and could happen in the future.

3. Barker simultaneously listened to classical music and did homework at the same time because he believed that music enabled him to relax while he studied.

One, Each (singular or plural)
1. One of my closest friends are going to the high school football game on Friday.

2. Each of us are going to need a raincoat, umbrella, and beef jerky.

Prepositional Idioms
(prepositions: to, by, at, for, in, on, about, as, down, into, of, with, etc.)

1. Some viewers condemn the clothing advertisements to be tasteless. (condemn as tasteless)

2. Opposite to most people I know, Annie, a good photographer herself, actually enjoys seeing the photographs that her friends take on their vacations. ( )

3. Not very particular in nesting sites, house wrens may nest in birdhouses, mailboxes, building crevices – even in the pockets of hanging laundry. ( )

4. It was a Chinese American grower who finally succeeded with adapting the now familiar orange tree by the American climate. ( , )

5. Five years in the writing, her new book is both a response to her critics’ mistrust with her earlier findings and an elaboration of her original thesis.

6. The condition known as laryngitis usually causes the vocal cords and surrounding tissue to swell, thus preventing the cords to move freely.

*7. Most of the hypotheses that Kepler developed to explain physical forces was later rejected as inconsistent to Newtonian theory. (2x)

*8. London differs to other cities, such as Paris and New York, in that its shopping areas are so wide spread out. (2x)

(Sentence Improvements)
Being as she is – because
Since such is the case – because
For the reason of – because
Being that
Because of being …

Two full sentences joined by a comma, and no conjunction.

1. Although a native of America, the Poet Eric Johnson spent most of his life in India, he wrote many poems.

2. The African tsetse fly does not need a brain, everything it has to do in life is programmed into its nervous system.

3. Our modern solar calendar, established in 1582, is based on the Julian calendar, Julius Caesar introduced it in 46 BC.

4. Jamal, describing his first attempt to learn surfing, he was pleased by the interest his classmates were showing.

5. Santa Fe is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its adobe architecture and radiant light have long made it a magnet for artists.

6. The charges against the organization are being investigated by a committee, it includes several senators.

Incorrect or No Verb

INCORRECT: Although he was a native of America, the poet Eric Johnson writing…
CORRECT: Although he was a native of America, the poet Eric Johnson wrote…

Being is not a verb,
but ‘is being’ is a verb.

Active vs. Passive
INCORRECT: Jack believes that plants respond to human attention and talking is what is done to his Dutch tulips every day.
CORRECT: Jack believes that plants respond to human attention; he therefore talks to his Dutch tulips every day.

Active: Jack hits the ball.
Passive. The ball is hit by Jack.
To form passive voice, use + past participle

If you have a choice between Active and Passive voice, and both are grammatically correct, then go with Active voice.

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. The appositive can be a short or long combination of words. Look at these examples:
The insect, a cockroach, is crawling across the kitchen table.
The insect, a large cockroach with hairy legs, is crawling across the kitchen table.
The insect, a large, hairy-legged cockroach that has spied my bowl of oatmeal, is crawling across the kitchen table.
Here are more examples:
During the dinner conversation, Clifford, the messiest eater at the table, spewed mashed potatoes like an erupting volcano.
My 286 computer, a modern-day dinosaur, chews floppy disks as noisily as my brother does peanut brittle.
The important point to remember is that a nonessential appositive is always separated from the rest of the sentence with comma(s).
When the appositive begins the sentence, it looks like this:
A hot-tempered tennis player, Robbie charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man’s skull with a racket.
And when the appositive ends the sentence, it looks like this:
Upset by the bad call, the crowd cheered Robbie, a hot-tempered tennis player who charged the umpire and tried to crack the poor man’s skull with a racket.

Practice: Appositives after the first noun

, ,

Example: John Havlicek, a 5-time all star guard on the Boston Celtics, was inducted into the Hall of Fame this Saturday.
Class Example:



Practice: Appositives at the beginning of the sentence
, +

Example: A 10-time chess champion, Bobby Fischer earned the title ‘Grandfather of Chess’.
Class Example:



Practice: Appositives at the end of the sentence
+ + ,
Example: My friends went to see Swan Lake, a beautiful play composed by the famous Russian Tchaikovsky.
Class Example:



Conjunctions and Dependent Clauses
FANBOYS Conjunctions – Correct usage and logic
(For And Nor But Or Yet So)

Dependent Clause
A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word.
When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)
Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if,even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, while.

1. For months the press had praised Thatcher’s handling of the international crisis, and editorial views changed quickly when the domestic economy worsened.

2. Josephine Baker, one of the most versatile performers of the twentieth century, and who acquired fame as a dancer, singer, Broadway actress, and movie star.

3. Because fiscal problems will force some cities to lay off firefighters, and so the state legislature must decide whether to provide those cities with financial aid.

Dependent clause

4. America’s first rollercoaster ride, which opened in 1920 at Johnson Island, Virginia, and capable of a top speed of only six miles per hour.

5. While Jack is extremely proud of the award he won for placing first in the archery contest, but Jenna should not feel disappointed about taking second prize.

6. While Bailey slept on the sofa in front of the television, yet Dack, the family dog, gnawed on the leg of the coffee table.

7. Although the stain could be removed with soda water, but Maribel was still apopletic.

Dangling Modifiers
1. While rowing the boat, a typhoon struck John.
(Who was rowing? – John. The thing being modified MUST follow the modifier)
Why is this a rule? Think about it.
While rowing the boat, John was struck by a typhoon.

2. Led by vocalist Marlena Smalls, Gullah tradition is preserved by the help of the Hallelujah Singers of South Carolina through songs and stories.

(Who is led by vocalist Marlena? The Hallelujah singers)

Conplete the sentence:
Led by vocalist Marlena Smalls, The Hallelujah Singers …

3. Sometimes called the founder of art in Texas, a sculpture of William Jennings Bryan was completed by Elisabet Ney in her Austin studio in 1899.
(Who is called the founder of art in Texas?)

4. Known by millions for both his recordings and his roles in Hollywood movies, critics dubbed Frank Sinatra as one of the most famous “crooners” in show business.

5. Known for its waterfalls and rock formations, several thousand people a day visit the park during the summer months.

6. To help freshmen and sophomores in selecting their courses, candid reviews of courses and instructors were compiled by juniors and seniors.

7. Though they had earlier indicated otherwise, it was eventually decided upon by the legislators to have the bill passed.

8. Spread by rat fleas, millions of people in medieval Europe were killed by bubonic plague.

9. Among the most flavorful cuisines in the United States, New Orleans has also become one of the most popular.

Dangling Modifiers, Part 2
To , by , appositives
Finish the following sentences.

10. To …. ,

11. A strong, silent type, < person we’re talking about>…

12. By … ,

13. One of the best-tasting tomatoes,

14. A ,
eg. An incorrigible liar, John is my least favorite politician.

Dangling Modifiers Trickery:
An SAT Trick Many Students Fall For

15. As a graduate of Georgetown University, Johnson Jay’s interest in politics was evident.

16. Before enrolling in college this semester, the students’ schedules must be reviewed by their counselors.

17. Of all the people I have met, John’s decorum is the most sophisticated.


Misplaced Modifier

1. Professor Brand, who enjoys welcoming international students to her home on Thanksgiving, served the traditional turkey dressed in Pilgrim clothing.
(Was it the turkey dressed in clothing? Or Professor Brand who is dressed in clothing?)

Rewrite the sentence:

2. Several thousand people a day visit the park during the summer months known for its waterfalls and rock formations.

Correct: During the summer months, several thousand people a day visit the park, known for its waterfalls and rock formations.

3. The dentist told him frequently to use dental floss. (The dentist frequently told him, or .. ?

Conjunctive Adverbs
(however, nevertheless, consequently, as a result, therefore, thus, accordingly, additionally, anyway, besides, certainly, finally, further, furthermore, in fact, instead, likewise, nonetheless, moreover)

INCORRECT sentence , however , sentence
CORRECT: sentence; however, sentence
CORRECT sentence. However, sentence

1. In 1903, physicist Marie Curie was the first woman to win the Nobel Prize, moreover, in 1911, she became the first person to win it a second time.

Correlative Conjunctions

Neither… nor… (Singular)
Either… or… (Singular)
Between … and … (Between is used for two and among for more than two)
Not only … but also (Plural)
*Both … and … (Plural)
So… that… (So hungry that I could eat a horse)
At once… and … (All at one time; simultaneously)
The view is at once beautiful and underwhelming.
Since… therefore…
If… then…
If Batman is not showing in the theatre, then I will see Spiderman.
More as … than as…
As … as …
She is as kind as she is beautiful.
*Prefer A to B
I prefer chocolate ice cream to vanilla ice cream. (meaning: prefer chocolate)
From A to B
The ice cream flavors at the local ice cream shop range from plain vanilla to coffee super fudge chunk.

*No sooner… than…
No sooner had he walked in the door than his cat jumped on.
*Just as… so…
Just as Finland has beautiful rivers, so Denmark has beautiful fjords.
*Not until…

Each of the men is.. (Singular)
None can be singular or plural: (None of them are… None of it is… )
“Not one” — use singular

Everyone is having fun. Every one of the problems is fun. (Singular)

2. Not one of the students in the advanced chemistry class have passed a single test with a grade better than a C, but the second half of the course will be easier.

3. Neither a percolator or a drip coffeepot are likely to produce good coffee if the water used for brewing is overly chlorinated.

4. Both Drake Manilo plus Cathy Prenah have written scholarly works as well as popular murder mysteries, demonstrating a diversity of talents and interests.

5. The landscape artist who designed New York City’s Central Park believed that providing scenic settings accessible to all would not only benefit the public’s physical and mental health and also foster a sense of democracy.

6. In everything from finding comets to spotting supernovae, amateur astronomers have become so accomplished, and professional astronomers sometimes seek their help.

7. Travel writing often describes a journey of exploration and endurance, a trip that is risky either because of natural hazards but also because of political unrest.

Double negative
Wrong: Can’t hardly
Correct: Can hardly

1. The inflation rate in that country is so high that even with adjusted wages, most workers can’t barely pay for food and shelter.

2. Make sure you don’t never use no double negatives in your speech.
3. I think the new financial initiative will not last barely a month.
4. The researcher decided not to run the test again because the results from previous tests were hardly reliable.
5. Since his last speech gained little acceptance, the writer has not had no request to visit the forum again.

Participial Phrases
*Practice reading reverse sentences.
*Practice writing participial phrase in front, middle, and back.
*Practice going back in the packet and finding participials, and changing their position.
1. Albert behaved like a person permanently on stage, he was always speaking in a dramatic voice and looking around to see who was listening.
CORRECT: … stage, always verb-ing …
INCORRECT: My baseball team went 19-0, and sweeping our division.
CORRECT: Jack hugged his cat, holding him to his chest.
CORRECT: Michael Johnson ran the 100 meter dash in under 9 seconds, setting a personal record time.
CORRECT: Managers have to determine goals and go for them, encouraging workers to excel.

Can you add an adverb before the word?

Yes / No


“running” is not a verb.
I running. = WRONG
+ running” is a verb.
I am running.

A group of people – Singular or Plural?
A team, a group, a university, a city, an organization, a band
Singular or Plural?
The team celebrated their recent win.

On the snow day, the university canceled all their classes

The organization of professional Starcraft players, upon the release of Starcraft 2, decided to disband themselves and form a new organization.

The band, formed in Liverpool in 1960, were among those arrested at the anti-war demonstration.

The ancient Japanese capital, Kyoto, escaped unscathed in the WW2 bombings because of their numerous historical temples.

Colons ( : ) and semicolons ( ; )
Colon Used to Further Explain or Introduce a List
(Think of the colon as a gate)
Further Explanation with Two Sentences: Mary’s dinner reminded her of the back yard: both contained many wonderful colors and smells.
Further Explanation with a List: Mary’s dinner consisted of the following: salad, soup, chicken, and toast.
Further Explanation with a Quotation: The words Ivan spoke were very kind: “Mary, I made this dinner especially for you, dear.”

Semicolon Used to Join Two Complete Sentences (related in thought)
Example 1: Mary ate dinner; the dinner tasted exquisite.
Example 2: By age 15, Ivan had cooked 300 meals; by age 20, he had cooked twice that amount.
Semicolon Used with Words Like ‘however” and Phrases Like “for example”
Example 1: Mary ate dinner; however, she was hungry an hour later.
Example 2: Mary’s dinner was made with several spices; for example, the chicken was sprinkled with Cayenne pepper.
The colon is a gate: it introduces further about a topic, like an explanation or a list.
Think of the semicolon as a period AND a comma. Use it when you want to use a comma because the two sentences are related, but should use a period to avoid a run-on. Combine comma and period and you get the semicolon.
As a…
As a rich man…
As a teacher…
As a citizen. Of Taiwan.. I’m eligible to vote

Would have vs. Would Of
I would of vs. I would have / would’ve
Correct way: would have, could have, should have, might have
Also Correct way: would’ve, could’ve, should’ve, might’ve
(Would have and Would’ve are the exact same meaning)
Misspell: would of, could of, should of, might of

Mandative Subjunctive
Always uses Infinitive form of verb. (to + verb). In other words, don’t change the verb from its dictionary form.
Require that… + (normal form of verb) (ie. Don’t conjugate it)
Insist that… + (normal form of verb)
Demand that… + (normal form of verb)
Suggest that…
Ask that…

FORM: …. require that

eg. John’s school’s rules require that he maintain a 2.0 GPA in order to graduate.
eg2. My teachers insist that I speak louder in class.




Reverse Structure Sentences

Hypothetical Subjunctive
If I were to < verb > , I would < verb>
Were I a millionaire, I would/might …
‘However’ is not the same as ‘but’. Don’t use them the same way.

Will vs. Would
Will – A situation we know is going to happen.
If it rains on Saturday, we will play the soccer game indoors.
When it snows this winter in New York City, many homeless people will suffer from frostbite.
This summer I will go to an overnight camp in Denver.
Would – the “what – if?” scenario. A situation we are imagining (hypothetical)
If I had time this summer, I would go to overnight camp in Denver.
Finish this sentence:
If I had a million dollars, I would …

Sentence Interrupting Clauses
Examples: ‘not surprisingly’, ‘as many people think’, ‘however’, ‘moreover’, ‘scientists believe’, ‘ …’
1. My clumsy friend is a black belt. = > My clumsy friend is, surprisingly, a black belt.

2. My favorite ice cream is chocolate, not vanilla. =>

My favorite ice cream is chocolate, not, as my friends mistakenly believe, vanilla.

3. Jack is a good guy. However, he does lose his temper at times.

Jack is a good guy. He does, however, lose his temper at times.

4. My Thai friend likes spicy food.
Interrupt with => ‘not surprisingly’

My Thai friend, not surprisingly, likes spicy food.